Supplementation, Evergreen Expert's Guide To Natural Health

Evergreen’s A to Z of Vitamins & Minerals


Vitamin A (Retinol)

A fat soluble vitamin, maintains eye health (particularly related to night sight), supports growth of cells within mucous membranes, involved in protein synthesis and skincare.

Found in: offal, dairy produce, oily fish, fish liver.

Companion nutrients: zinc; required to release vitamin A stored in the liver, vitamin E; the antioxidant of vitamin A.

Beta Carotene

Converted to vitamin A in the body if needed; if not needed remains as beta carotene and acts as a scavenger antioxidant.

Found in: carrots, spinach, apricots, tangerines, tomatoes.

Companion nutrients: vitamin A, C, E and zinc work with beta carotene strengthening antioxidant defences.

Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)

Water soluble, necessary for carbohydrate metabolism, converting food into energy, also aids production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach.

Found in: unpolished brown rice, yeast extract, fatty fish, wholemeal bread.

Companion nutrients: vitamin C works well with vitamin B1.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

A water soluble vitamin needed for body cell respiration, tissue repair (particularly that of mucous membranes). In its role as a co-enzyme, it works alongside various enzymes found in the liver, and is needed for the oxidation of energy producing components such as amino acids and sugars.

Found in: milk, dairy, yeast extract, brewer’s yeast.

Companion nutrients: rather than nutrients, the cofactors flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN). These contribute to several cellular reactions, including the metabolism of several other vitamins.

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

An energy vitamin, water soluble, related to converting food to energy. In the form nicotinic acid; maintains cardiac wellbeing, circulation. In the form nicotinamide; specifically energy production, breakdown of fats, proteins and carbohydrates.

Found in: yeast extract, brewer’s yeast, liver, dairy, oat flakes.

Companion nutrients: B1, B6, the respiratory cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP).

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)

Water soluble, the presence of B5 is connected to tissue and fat metabolism, energy production, anti-stress hormone production, antibody production – therefore important to immune health.

Found in: brewer’s yeast, liver, meat, poultry, fish, eggs.

Companion nutrients: co-enzyme A, linked to the utilisation of B2 and works with B6 to produce anti-stress hormones.

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

Water soluble and involved in more than 60 reactions in the body, many relating to protein metabolism; also a component in metabolising serotonin, histamine; required to convert L-methionine to cystathionine and prevent it instead becoming homocysteine.

Found in: Pork, white fish, liver, eggs, dairy, potatoes.

Companion nutrients: works with zinc in serotonin production; with magnesium in breaking down calcium oxalate; with nicotinic acid in the conversion of L-tryptophan; with B1 and B2 as neurotransmitters in nerve and impulse reactions.

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

This vitamin is slightly different from other water soluble vitamin in that very small amounts are stored in the body. It helps maintain a healthy nervous system (regulates the fatty acids integral to the myelin sheath), and is involved in the formation of healthy new red blood cells.

Found in: liver, kidney, fatty fish, eggs.

Companion nutrients: works closely with folic acid, calcium used to absorb B12 from the bowel. Intrinsic factor must be present to be absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract.


Water soluble and one of the B-vitamins (vitamin H, B7 or B8 depending on country), it is a component of the enzymes which metabolise fats, carbohydrates. Often taken to promote skin, hair and nail health.

Found in: liver, eggs (yolk), kidney, almonds.

Companion nutrients: operates as a cofactor for several carboxylases.

Folic Acid

A water soluble vitamin used to metabolism nucleic acids, and vitally important in pregnancy.

Found in: yeast extract, brewer’s yeast, spinach, oysters.

Companion nutrients: vitamin C is required to convert into the active form in the body; linked with B12 regarding healthy red blood cell production.

Vitamin C

The only water soluble vitamin that is not in the B-complex, involved in at least 300 biological processes. Used in collagen production, control of histamines, correct functioning of adrenals; has antiviral, antibacterial and antioxidant properties.

Found in: citrus fruits, plums, tomatoes, strawberries, broccoli.

Companion nutrients: bioflavonoids always occur alongside vitamin C in its food sources, and vitamin C is linked with vitamin A and E because of its protective effects on them, also facilitates the absorption of iron.

Vitamin D

A fat soluble vitamin that operates more akin to a hormone, whose main role is in calcium metabolism and bone health, also related to immune wellbeing.

Found in: the UV rays of the sun react with oils under the skin to create vitamin D, oil from white-fleshed fish, fatty fish.

Companion nutrients: needed to promote the absorption of calcium and phosphate.

Vitamin E

A powerful antioxidant which is fat soluble, known as a vasodilator, skin repairer and protector of cell membranes. Can increase efficiency of oxygen used by muscle and is connected with fertility, also neutralises free radicals in the body.

Found in: eggs, butter, cereals, oily fish.

Companion nutrients: protector of vitamin A, C, polyunsaturated fatty acids and the amino acids cysteine, cystine, methionine, works synergistically with selenium with the two appearing inextricably linked.

Vitamin K

Fat soluble and has one main function of producing blood clotting factors. It is also linked with the synthesis of proteins produced in the liver, and has a hand in bone health.

Found in: spinach, broccoli, lettuce, some liver, lean meat.

Companion nutrients: requires combination with calcium for the activation of some of the clotting factors.



The main elemental constituent of bones and teeth, needed for bone health, involved in nerve-impulse transmission and healthy blood clotting.

Found in: cheese, yoghurt, nuts, fish with the bones, eggs.

Companion nutrients: appears to have an inverse relationship with both magnesium and potassium, works with vitamin D in bone health, calcium ions are needed for correct B12 absorption.


A trace mineral connected with the complex known as GTF (glucose tolerance factor); therefore thought to be of use in balancing blood sugars.

Found in: brewer’s yeast, liver, molasses, wheat germ.

Companion nutrients: B3 is thought to be related to the metabolism of chromium because it too is related to GTF.


This is a metallic trace mineral which is a cofactor for many enzymes, such as those which facilitate the formation of melanin, collagen. It is used for iron absorption, healthy bone and blood formation, nerve impulses in the brain and the functioning of cytochromes.

Found in: liver, seafood, nuts, seeds.

Companion nutrients: vitamin C can improve absorption, high levels of zinc or manganese can reduce copper levels.


This trace element is tightly connected to and plays a vital role in thyroid function; it forms part of the hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine.

Found in: sea vegetables, cod, herring, some dairy produce.

Companion nutrients: thought to interact with selenium.


Essential trace mineral which is a constituent of haemoglobin, myoglobin, several enzymes notably cytochromes. It acts as a carrier of oxygen to the muscles, and takes part in the transfer, is involved in immune health and plays a part in the enzyme which destroys the toxic hydrogen peroxide produced by the body during metabolic processes.

Found in: meat, liver, poultry, fish (these are haem iron and easier absorbed); vegetables (non-haem iron).

Companion nutrients: vitamin C can enhance absorption, traces of copper are also needed. Excessive zinc can be detrimental, non-haem iron can have absorption affected by tannins in tea and other beverages as well as the presence of phytic acid and phosphate.


A metallic macro element, it is connected to nerve impulse transmission, bone health, muscle relaxation. It is a cofactor in protein metabolism, a cofactor in hormones and enzyme systems, and activator and cofactor of B1 and B6 in their metabolic functions.

Found in: soya beans, nuts, brown rice, brewer’s yeast.

Companion nutrients: needed to utilise B1, B6, complements calcium and may enhance the absorption and retaining of it.


A trace mineral which 2 enzymes rely upon specifically for their activity and several others are non-specifically activated by. The huge range of roles manganese is involved in includes developmental growth, a healthy nervous system, thyroid function, utilisation of many vitamins such as C, E, B.

Found in: wholegrains, tea, fruit, vegetables.

Companion nutrients: iron is thought to perform better in its presence, vitamin C, E, B utilisation is connected.


An alkali metal which one of the main electrolytes present in the body. It is involved in muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, energy release during metabolism, and is vital for heart health. It performs alongside sodium to regulate the water balance and acid-alkaline balance in blood and tissue.

Found in: dairy, raisins, instant coffee, avocados.

Companion nutrients: the mentioned sodium, and magnesium may be connected to maintaining potassium levels in the cell.


This trace mineral is an excellent antioxidant and works to neutralise the effects of free radicals. Alongside vitamin C, E, it is connected to the enzyme glutathione peroxidase which facilitates the breakdown of hydro peroxides.

Found in: Seafood, kidney, liver. Content in grain, seeds and nuts depends on soil quality.

Companion nutrients: vitamin C, and vitamin E with which it is synergistic.


Trace mineral which is a cofactor in over 80 enzyme systems. Involved in growth process and skeletal development, cell division, connected to the release of insulin by the pancreas, and related to maintaining a healthy immune system and healthy liver.

Found in: meat, liver, eggs, oysters.

Companion nutrients: need to release vitamin A from liver stores. Excess of zinc or iron can negate the other, high zinc can also lower copper absorption, high cadmium can impair zinc absorption.

Speciality Supplements

Alpha Lipoic Acid

A vitamin-like substance which plays a role in production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate, the molecule that carries energy in the cell) and as a potent antioxidant protecting against both water and fat soluble free radicals. It may help maintain glutathione levels, and could discourage skin glycation.

Co-Enzyme Q10

A substance found in each cell and an essential component of the mitochondria, related to production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) — it is needed in the conversion of carbohydrates and fats into energy. It has heart health properties, and is a lipid protecting antioxidant.


This is the principle curcuminoid found in the herb turmeric. A potent antioxidant which is thought to also enhance the actions of other antioxidants, and has the properties of an anti-inflammatory compound.

DHA (docosahexaenoic acid)

This is an omega-3 fatty acid strongly connected to eye health and mental function, and in small part to immune and cardio function. Particularly important during foetal development and during infancy to assist normal visual and neurological development.

EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid)

Omega-3 fatty acid, works in combination with DHA in connection to cardiovascular function. Used to signal molecules called eicosanoids which operate in terms of anti-inflammatory and numerous physiological roles.


There is many variants of ginseng such as Korean; thought to increase stamina, beat fatigue. Contains a group of terpenoid compounds called ginsenosides. Another ginseng is Siberian; not actually a true ginseng but seen as the balance of not stimulating and not sedating. Contains the compound eleutherosides, though to limit levels of stress hormones released in the stress response.


An organic sulphur compound, an element in more than 150 compounds in the body and in every cell. Specifically present in hair, nails, connective tissue — joints, skin as an important protein structural component.

NAC (N-acetyl-L-cysteine or N-acetylcysteine)

The acetylated precursor of both L-cysteine and reduced glutathione, has properties of an antioxidant and free radical scavenger, can promote liver detoxification and is being studied in regards to its effect on glutamate which is considered connected to craving reduction.

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